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Radiant: A New Blockchain Architecture for Digital Asset Management


The Radiant network is a peer-to-peer digital asset system that enables the direct exchange of value without going through a central party. The original Bitcoin[1] protocol provides what is needed to create a peer-to-peer electronic cash system, but lacks the ability to verify transaction histories and therefore cannot be used to validate digital assets. Digital signatures and output constraints provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to validate digital assets. The Radiant network itself requires minimal structure and operates similarly to the Bitcoin network in time-stamping transactions into an ongoing hash-based chain of proof-of-work. We introduce two techniques to validate digital assets using a general-purpose induction-proof system that operates in constant O(1) time and space. The induction proof system makes it possible to efficiently compose outputs in any manner, without compromising the inherent parallelism.

Problem Statement

Commerce with blockchains and digital ledgers has come to rely on issuers and custodians serving as trusted third parties (sometimes referred to as "bridges", "oracles", "secondary layers") to authenticate digital assets and process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for electronic payment-like transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust-based model for more advanced usages of the blockchain. The high costs of transactions associated with Ethereum Virtual Machines (EVM) based blockchains are due to the limited block space and the inherent limitations of the account-based model of processing. What is needed is an electronic payment system that can also act as a digital asset management system with the performance characteristics of an unspent transaction output (UTXO) blockchain architecture, with the flexibility of an account-based blockchain.


In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of blockchain scaling using two novel methods which, independently, provide a general induction proof system capable of authenticating digital assets, and emulating account-based blockchains, while maintaining the performance characteristics of a UTXO-based blockchain such as unbounded scale and parallelism.

The first method is to use a general-purpose induction-proof system. The induction proof system makes it possible to efficiently compose outputs in any manner, without compromising the inherent parallelism. The induction proof system is based on the principle of mathematical induction, which states that if a statement is true for the base case and for all subsequent cases, then it is true for all cases.

The second method is to allow the embedding of the parent transaction into an unlocking script. In this manner, we can perform induction proofs and guarantee that a transaction output originated from a valid genesis minting event.


We have proposed a system for digital asset management without relying on trust. We started with the basic blockchain construction of coins made from digital signatures, which provides strong control of ownership. From the needed rules and incentives, we introduced two novel methods for authenticating and tracking digital assets in constant O(1) time and space. Both methods independently provide a general induction-proof system that can encode any possible digital asset configuration. The system is Turing Complete within and across transaction boundaries, with unbounded scale, and never any need for secondary layers. Additionally, we have presented three contract design patterns: Non-Fungible Token (NFT), Fungible Token (FT), and Account which emulates account-based blockchains, using the UTXO-based processing model. Radiant is a breakthrough design that provides the performance and parallelism benefits of an unspent transaction output (UTXO) blockchain, with the programming sophistication of account-based blockchains while maintaining ultra-low fees and unbounded scale.


  1. Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Retrieved from


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